Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD) Stats Specimen Records:119 Specimens with Sequences:162 Specimens with Barcodes:135 Species:31 Species With Barcodes:31 Public Records:53 Public Species:26 Public BINs:0
Dactylorhiza (as named by Necker ex Nevski, 1937), commonly called marsh orchid or spotted orchid, is a genus of flowering plants in the orchid family (Orchidaceae). Dactylorhiza were previously classified under Orchis which has two round tubers.
They are hardytuberousgeophytes. In a thickened underground stem, they can store a large amount of water to survive arid conditions. The tuber is flattened and finger-like. The long leaves are lanceolate and, in most species, also speckled. They grow along a rather long stem which reaches a height of 70–90 cm (28–35 in). Leaves higher on the stem are shorter than leaves lower on the stem. The inflorescence, compared to the length of the plant, is rather short. It consists of a compact raceme with 25-50 flowers. These develop from axillary buds. The dominant colors are white and all shades of pink to red, sprinkled with darker speckles.
Many species in this genus hybridise so readily that species boundaries themselves are vague, with regular name changes and no clear answers. A few species colonise very well onto fresh industrial wastes such as pulverised fuel ash, where vast hybrid swarms can appear for a decade or more, before ecological succession replaces them.
De Hert, Koen; Jacquemyn, Hans; Van Glabeke, Sabine; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Vandepitte, Katrien; Leus, Leen & Honnay, Olivier (2011). "Reproductive isolation and hybridization in sympatric populations of three Dactylorhiza species (Orchidaceae) with different ploidy levels". Annals of Botany 109 (4): 709–720. doi:10.1093/aob/mcr305. PMID22186278.
De Hert, Koen; Jacquemyn, Hans; Van Glabeke, Sabine; Roldán-Ruiz, Isabel; Vandepitte, Katrien; Leus, Leen & Honnay, Olivier (2011). "Patterns of hybridization between diploid and derived allotetraploid species of Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae) co-occurring in Belgium". American Journal of Botany 98 (6): 946–955. doi:10.3732/ajb.1000367. PMID21653507.
Hedrén, Mikael; Nordström, Sofie & Bateman, Richard M. (2011). "Plastid and nuclear DNA marker data support the recognition of four tetraploid marsh orchids (Dactylorhiza majalis s.l., Orchidaceae) in Britain and Ireland, but require their recircumscription". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 104 (1): 107–128. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2011.01708.x.
Hedrén, Mikael; Nordström, Sofie & Ståhlberg, David (2012). "Geographical variation and systematics of the tetraploid marsh orchid Dactylorhiza majalis subsp. sphagnicola (Orchidaceae) and closely related taxa". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 168 (2): 174–193. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2011.01198.x.
Inda, Luis A.; Pimentel, Manuel & Chase, Mark W. (2010). "Chalcone synthase variation and phylogenetic relationships in Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae)". Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 163 (2): 155–165. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8339.2010.01055.x.
Paun, Ovidiu; Bateman, Richard M.; Fay, Michael F.; Hedrén, Mikael; Civeyrel, Laure & Chase, Mark W. (2010). "Stable epigenetic effects impact adaptation in allopolyploid orchids (Dactylorhiza: Orchidaceae)". Molecular Biology and Evolution 27 (11): 2465–2473. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq150.
Paun, Ovidiu; Luna, Javier A.; Fay, Michael F.; Bateman, Richard M. & Chase, Mark W. (2010). "Genomic responses drive adaptation in allotetraploid species of Dactylorhiza (Orchidaceae; Orchidinae)". In Seberg, Ole; Petersen, Gitte; Barfod, Anders et al. Diversity, Phylogeny, and Evolution in the Monocotyledons: Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on the Comparative Biology of the Monocotyledons and the Fifth International Symposium on Grass Systematics and Evolution. pp. 169–192. Retrieved 2015-02-16.|displayeditors= suggested (help)
Ståhlberg, David & Hedrén, Mikael (2010). "Evolutionary history of the Dactylorhiza maculata polyploid complex (Orchidaceae)". Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 101 (3): 503–525. doi:10.1111/j.1095-8312.2010.01505.x.